A final year project on “Remote Patient Monitoring System Through IOT Using Mobile Application” submitted by Matta Jagadish to extrudesign.com. This project was completed by 1Matta Jagadish, 2Shaik Mohammad Fahanus, 3T. Sunil Kumar (Electronics and Communication Engineering) from Hindustan institute of technology and science, Padur, Tamilnadu, India.
Health-related issues and parameters are of utmost importance to man and are essential to his existence. The main concept of this project is to create a low-cost affordable health monitoring system for people in remote locations where the availability of specialist doctors is not possible. This system is portable. Low cost and can be easily operated by anyone with limited knowledge. Also, this concept is developed using IoT, so that we can send the data to a remote server from which it can be accessed by doctors. This project is designed using Arduino microcontroller development board, temperature sensor, blood pressure sensor, pulse oximeter sensor, NodeMCU, LCD Display, GPS module and alert system using Global Positioning System and Global System for Mobile communication technology. In this project heartbeat and temperature of the body is measured by sensors that send the signals to the Control unit and displays on Liquid Crystal Display, after proper processing and determination of heartbeat rate. If that rate is maximally exceeding the threshold range, immediately an SMS alert with location will be sent to the nearest medical care centres and to the family, and the same message is converted as a voice call and sent to the ambulance.
Keywords: Arduino microcontroller, GPS Module, NodeMCU, Pulse oximeter Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Remote Patient Monitoring System.
India has a huge population of about 1.3 billion out of which nearly seventy percent live in rural areas. Rural medical practitioners (RMPs), who provide nearly eighty percent of outpatient care, do not have the required qualifications. There is a lack of required manpower and a huge setup cost of medical equipment. Sometimes the patient is required to be monitored after the treatment and such poor people cannot afford the hospital, administration and nursing charges. There is another challenge that medical practitioners face while managing multiple patients on a hospital floor. The patients staying in the vicinity of urban areas rush to the Urban Primary Health Care Center in case of emergencies. Due to the large inflow of patients and limited nursing staff, it is not often possible to appoint a nurse to each patient. The proposed system can solve both the problems faced by medical practitioners. Though the nurse is not there physically, she will be observing the health parameters in the monitoring station. If an emergency arises, she will be available to respond quickly. and the sensors are designed to read pulses of the person in BPM (beats per minute) and sends the information to the controller and the whole work can be done through GPS, with the help of a call converter, SMS will convert to call and call a is initiated to emergency number with GPS location for help. At the same time, SMS will be sent to the person relatives. By this, the doctor knows the heart rate of the person, temperature and condition of the person before reaching the hospital. By this, even some of the deaths can be avoided.
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
Bluetooth wireless technology is inexpensive, short-range radio technologies that eliminate the need for proprietary cabling between devices such as Mobile’s cameras, and printers in an effective range of 10 – 100 meters and generally communicate at less than 1 Mbps.
ZigBee is one of the protocols developed for enhancing the features of wireless sensor networks. Characteristics of ZigBee are low cost, low data rate, relatively short transmission range, scalability, reliability, flexible protocol design. ZigBee has a range of around 100 meters and a bandwidth of 250 kbps.
However, recently developed power-efficient Wi-Fi components, with appropriate system design and usage model, have become a strong candidate in this domain. Other technologies like Bluetooth, ZigBee, RFID has limitations of transmission range.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a system that transmits the identity of an object or person wirelessly using radio waves in the form of a serial number. RFID technology plays an important role in IoT for solving identification issues of objects around us in a cost-effective manner.
The other communication technologies like ZigBee, RF Link can make the communication nearly in the same range of Wi-Fi but they can’t broadcast the information as they can only communicate peer to peer. Low-power Wi-Fi promises multiple years of battery lifetime while providing easy integration to existing infrastructure with built-in IP-network compatibility. Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is a networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal.
3. PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
The proposed system consists of a microcontroller as a main processing unit for the entire system and all the sensor and devices can be connected with the microcontroller. The sensors can be operated by the microcontroller to retrieve the data from them and it processes the analysis with the sensor data and updates it to the internet through Wi-Fi module connected to it.
3.1 REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
The various components in the block diagram are mentioned below:
- Pulse oximeter sensor
- Temperature Sensor
- Arduino board
- Power Supply
- Node MCU
- Liquid Crystal Display
- GPS module
8.blood pressure sensor
Arduino uno is a microcontroller board based on 8-bit atmega328p microcontroller. Along with atmega328p, it consists other components such as crystal oscillator, serial communication, voltage regulator, etc.
To support the microcontroller. Arduino uno has 14 digital input/output pins (out of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog input pins, a USB connection, A power barrel jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.
3.3 Node MCU ESP8266
The NodeMCU ESP8266 development board comes with the ESP-12E module containing ESP8266 chip having 32-bit LX106 RISC microprocessor. This microprocessor operates at 80MHz to 160 MHz adjustable clock frequency. NodeMCU has 128 KB RAM and 4MB of Flash memory to store data and programs.
SIM800C supports Quad-band 850/900/1800/1900MHz, it can transmit Voice, SMS and data information with low power consumption.
Global Positioning System is a global navigation satellite system that provides location, velocity and time synchronization.
3.6 LM35 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
LM35 is a temperature sensor that outputs an analogue signal which is proportional to the instantaneous temperature. The output voltage can easily be interpreted to obtain a temperature reading in Celsius.
3.7 PULSE SENSOR
Pulse Sensor is a well-designed plug-and-play heart-rate sensor. Transmission types measure pulse waves by emitting red or infrared light from the body surface and detecting the change in blood flow during heartbeats as a change in the amount of light transmitted through the body. This method is limited to areas where light can easily penetrate, such as the fingertip or earlobe.
4. WORKING OF REMOTE PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
The input of Arduino containing pulse sensor and temperature sensor and LCD by connecting adaptor power supply with voltage to the Arduino simultaneously it is taking the input from pulse sensor and temperature sensor. In normal conditions, the temperature sensor will display temperature on LCD, and the pulse sensor will display heart rate in BPM (bits per minute) on LCD. In abnormal condition the pulse sensor range will be (heart rate is greater than 76 bpm is a high risk of heart attack) in BPM if that threshold range will exceed the car control will be undertaken by Arduino and the car ignition stopped with the help of relay and DC motor, simultaneously the car horn will buzz continuously for help from nearby people to save that person in the car who got a heart attack, and also the Arduino sense the GPS location to the phone number of doctors and family members as an SMS through GSM and GPS devices which are connected to the Arduino at the output and the SMS will be converted to voice message along with GPS location of the vehicle, and An automatic call will be allotted to emergency number for help
through mobile phone. After any person approaches and presses the RESET button which is connected to the controller the whole system has been RESET.
Health monitoring systems play a crucial role in the field of health care and early predicting issues regarding one’s health. In addition, these systems are a means of cutting medical costs regarding periodical hospital checks and doctor visits. Thus, developing a system that delivers health data from a patient place to a relative or a medical specialist became a necessity with increasing demand. This paper presented a low cost, health monitoring system that provides a real-time monitoring dashboard for biological indicators within a secure environment using IoT technology and cloud computing. The proposed system involved the AES algorithm for encrypting vital signals captured from sensors before sending it to the cloud for storage. A NodeMCU microcontroller is utilized to carry out the processing and encryption functions, and connectivity to the cloud over Wi-Fi. In addition, the proposed system provides an alert by sending an SMS and Call alert to patient relatives or the coordinating specialist if vital signs are outside the normal rates.
7. FUTURE WORK
The system looks somewhat bulky, it will be a tiny device by proper manufacturing in the near future. The video feature can be added for face-to-face consultation between the doctors and patients. Some more measures which are very significant to determine a patient’s condition like the level of diabetes, respiration monitoring, etc. can be addressed as future work.
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