We have discussed how the stress concentration effect the different cross-section mechanical components. Due to the irregular stress distribution, stress concentration increases and let the component failure. So how we can reduce the stress concentration? There are few methods of reducing stress concentration.
Methods of reducing stress concentration
Before getting into the topic we have to understand what is the stress concentration and why it occurs.
Stress concentration occurs due to the irregular stress distribution. this irregular stress distribution occurs due to the different cross-sections, the presence of notches or holes, keyways, scratches.
There are a few methods that will reduce the stress concentration. These methods will not eliminate the complete stress concentration completely, but they can reduce the concentration to some extent.
Following are the different design possibilities of the same component with the stress flow line shown within the body.
As you can see the stress flow lines are more even in the slant edged, filleted, notched/grooved design. but in the case of sharp corners, it has more irregular stress flow lines causes the more stress concentration in the member. since it is not a preferred design.
Following is an example of externally threaded cylindrical members with different design possibilities to reduce the stress concentration.
As you can see the threaded cylinder which has the shank diameter is equal in diameter as the minor diameter (Root) of the thread is much more effective for the reducing the stress concentration, where the shank diameter is equal to the Major diameter (Crest) will result in the more stress concentration.
Following is an example of shoulders in cylindrical members with different design possibilities to reduce the stress concentration. In this case, giving a large amount of fillet will not be effective in reducing the stress concentration. giving the grooves around the barrel or at the corners will have the much more effective in reducing the concentration.
These are the few examples, how we can prefer the design for different applications to reduced stress concentration.