A final year project on “Certificate Verification and Validation using Blockchain” submitted by Abhijit Shivaji Nawale (from JSPM’S Bhivarabai Sawant Institute of Technology & Research Wagholi) to extrudesign.com.
In India Ministry of Education statistics, about one million graduates each year, some of them will go to countries, high schools or tertiary institutions to continue to attend, and some will be ready to enter the workplace employment. During the course of study, the students’ all kinds of excellent performance certificates, score transcripts, diplomas, etc., will become an important reference for admitting new schools or new works. As schools make various awards or diplomas, only the names of the schools and the students are input. Due to the lack of effectiveanti-forge mechanism, events that cause the graduation certificate to be forged often get noticed. In order to solve the problem of counterfeiting certificates, the digital certificate system based on blockchain technology would be proposed. By the modifiable property of blockchain, the digital certificate with anti-counterfeit and verifiability could be made. The procedure of issuing the digital certificate in this system is as follows. First, generate the electronic file of apaper certificate accompanying other related data into the database, meanwhile calculate the electronic file for its hash value. Finally, store the hash value into the block in the chain system. The system will create a related QR-code and inquiry string code to affix to the paper certificate. It will provide the demand unit to verify the authenticity of the paper certificate through mobile phone scanning or website inquiries. Through the modifiable properties of the blockchain, the system not only enhances the credibility of various paper-based certificates, but also electronically reduces the loss risks of various types of certificates.
Keywords:– Blockchain, Document Verification, Digital Certificate, distributed, Preprocessing, QR-Code, etc.
E-certificate generation system which manually creates the certificates based on current students’ data. Various centralized methods follow a similar approach for verification. The centralized approaches cant defend the various network attacks like SQL injection, Collusion, bruited force, etc. Blockchain approach using a decentralized approach. Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging, is pushing frontiers of computing applications, data, and services away from the centralized cloud to the logical stream of the network edge. Fog networking system works to build the control, configuration, and management over the Internet backbone rather than the primary control by network gateways and switches those which are embedded in the LTE network. We can illuminate the fog computing framework as a highly virtualized computing infrastructure that provides hierarchical computing facilities with the help of edge server nodes. These fog nodes organize the wide applications and services to store and process the contents in close proximity to end-users.
- To eliminate the time-consuming certificate verification process, for organizations.
- To reduce the database frauds from various attacks.
- To enhance the transaction clarity.
- Improve the trust of the system
This research to design and develop a system for dynamic and secure e certificate generation system using smart contracts in a blockchain environment. In this work, we also illustrate our own blockchain in an open-source environment with a custom mining strategy as well as a smart contract. Finally, validate and explore system performance using a consensus algorithm for proof of validation.
System Requirements for Blockchain Technology
- Operating System: Windows Xp/7/8
- Programming Languages: JAVA/J2EE
- Tools: Eclipse or Higher, Heidi SQL, JDK 1.7 or Higher
- Database: MySQL 5.1
- System type: Pentium (4) 2.4 GHz
- Processor :Intel(R) Core(TM)i5-8300H CPU 2.30GHz
- Installed Memory(RAM):8.00GB
- Hard disk :40 GB.
Methodologies of Problem Solving
- The system proposed a new dynamic certificate generation approach using its own custom blockchain
- The first student apply for an e-certificate on the web portal with upload all educational documents
- The web portal is authenticating a trusted third party which validates all documents from the university, school, colleges, etc.
- Once successfully verification has done from university, school, colleges it will store data into the blockchain and same time it generates the unique certificate id or QR code and returns it to the student.
- Student can submit the received QR code or certificate id to the organization instead of a physical hard copy of documents
- Organizations can submit QR code or id to the portal and pool the e-certificate of the respective student and make the validation.
- The entire process
- Slight Control over Fraud.
- Transperency system
- Eradicate the problem
- Lengthy process.
- Cost can be high.
Algorithm Used for Blockchain Technology
1. SHA(Secure Hash Algorithm)
In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest – typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long. It was designed by the United States National Security Agency, and is a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard.
The mining model that an algorithm creates from your data can take various forms, including A set of clusters that describe how the cases in a dataset are related.
K-mean Algorithm Apriori Algorithm etc.
An input validation algorithm is used to ensure that the data entered by a user is acceptable. For example, if a program were to ask for a score between 0 and 50, an input validation algorithm would be used to ensure that values below 0 and above 50 were rejected.
We are sing the waterfall modeling
Blockchain System Architecture
Educational documents verification is very tedious and time consuming process in real time environment. E- Certificate generation for entire educational history is easy process to eliminate such consuming tasks. Dynamic QR-code and unique certificate generation for each students document in proposed system. Data e-certificate stored into the blockchain in secure manner which enhance the security. According to the smart contract system also allow the updates in entire blockchain. This research proposed a custom blockchain generation on open source platform.
Data Flow Diagram
- Education field.
- Peer-to-peer communication transaction applications. 3.Banking System.
- Bitcoin transaction applications.
- Zebpay transaction application
Cost of projectC=N*Cp C=3*8000
The Cost of the project is approximately up to 24000.
Estimating LOC for this project is difficult at estimation stages this project is of innovative type project. Average estimation of this project is 10000 to 12000 line of code.
LOC based Estimation:
Efforts in Person in months E = 3.2 ∗ (KLOC)^1.05
E = 3.2 ∗ 9.0^1.05to11.0 ∗ 4.2^1.05
There are many research directions in applying Blockchain technology to the E-certificate transaction due to the complexity of this domain and the need for more robust and effective information technology systems. An interoperable architecture would undoubtedly play a significant role throughout many E-certificate transaction use cases that face similar data sharing and communication challenges. From the more technical aspect, much research is needed to pinpoint the most practical design process in creating an interoperable ecosystem using Blockchain technology while balancing critical security and confidentiality concerns in E-certificate transactions. Whether to create a decentralized application leveraging an existing Blockchain, additional research on secure and efficient software practice for applying the Blockchain technology in E-certificate transaction is also needed to educate software engineers and domain experts on the potential and also limitations of this new technology. Likewise, validation and testing approach to gauge the efficacy of Blockchain-based health care architectures compared to existing systems are also important (e.g., via performance metrics related to time and cost of computations or assessment metrics related to its feasibility).
Future research will focus on this overall scalability and speed over time to improve the user experience.
- Jiin-Chiou Chen, Narn-Yih Lee, Chien Chi, and Yi-Hua Chen Blockchain and Smart Contract for Digital Certificate Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Applied System Innovation 2018 IEEE ICASI 2018- Meen, Prior & Lam(Eds).
- Austin Draper, Aryan Familrouhani, Devin Cao, Tevisophea Heng, Wenlin Han Security Applications and Challenges in Blockchain Published in IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE) 2019.
- Marco Baldi, Franco Chiaraluce, Emanuele Frontoni, Giuseppe Gottardi, Daniele Sciarroni and Luca Spalazzi Certificate Validation through Public Ledgers and Blockchains In Proceedings of the First Italian Conference on Cybersecurity (ITASEC17) 2017.
- Neethu Gopal, Vani V Prakash Survey on Blockchain Based Digital Certificate System International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Nov 2018.
- Santosh Pandey, Gopal Ojha, Rohit Kumar, And Bikesh Shrestha BlockSIM: A practical simulation tool for optimal network design, stability and planning 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC).
Credit: This project work was completed by Abhijit Nawale, Ashutosh Ghule and Rohan Hargude Under the guidance of Prof. Sharad Adsure from the Department Of Computer Engineering, Bhivarabai Sawant Institute of Technology & Research Wagholi, Pune.